Cicadidae (Homoptera) de Nicaragua
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..............................The Cicada Wing Membrane
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TOSENA PAVIEI CICADA
Tosena paviei is a cicada species from Southeast Asia ( Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam. ). It has been recorded from Thailand and Vietnam. The type specimens were collected on the Route de Luang-Prabang à Theng. Luang Prabang is now in Laos but Theng probably refers to Dien Bien Phu, a city in the Northwest region of Vietnam near the border with Laos which was formerly called Thaeng or Muong Thanh . So it's not clear if the type specimen were collected in Laos or Vietnam.
Cicada are a superfamily of insects in the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha along with smaller jumping bugs such as leafhoppers and froghoppers. About 2,500 species of cicada have been described; many undescribed species remain.
Cicadas have prominent eyes set wide apart, short antennae, and membranous front wings. They have an exceptionally loud song, produced not by stridulation but by vibrating drumlike tymbals rapidly. The earliest fossil Cicadomorpha appeared in the Upper Permian period; extant species occur all around the world in temperate to tropical climates. They typically live in trees, feeding on sap, and laying their eggs in a slit in the bark. Most cicadas are cryptic, singing at night to avoid predators. The periodic cicadas spend most of their lives as underground nymphs, only emerging after 13 or 17 years, most likely to reduce losses by satiating their predators.
Cicadas have been featured in literature since the time of Homer's Iliad, and as motifs in art from the Chinese Shang dynasty. They have been used in myths and folklore to represent carefree living and immortality. Cicadas are eaten in various countries, including China where the nymphs are served deep-fried in Shandong cuisine.
There are at least 1300 cicada species worldwide with the majority being in the tropics. Most genera are restricted to a single biogeographical region and many species have a very limited range. This high degree of endemism has been used to study the biogeography of complex island groups such as in Indonesia and the Orient.
There are about 200 described species in Australia and New Zealand, around 150 in South Africa, over 170 in America north of Mexico, at least 800 in Latin America, and over 200 in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. There are about 100 species in the Palaearctic. A few species are found in southern Europe, and a single species in England, the New Forest cicada, Melampsalta montana, which also occurs in continental Europe.
Most of the North American species are in the genus Neotibicen: the annual or jar fly or dog-day cicadas (so named because they emerge in late July and August).The best-known North American genus is Magicicada. These periodical cicadas have an extremely long life cycle of 13 or 17 years, suddenly and briefly emerging in large numbers.
The "singing" of male cicadas is not stridulation such as many familiar species of insects produce for example crickets. Instead, male cicadas have a noisemaker called a tymbal below each side of the anterior abdominal region. The tymbals are structures of the exoskeleton formed into complex membranes with thin, membranous portions and thickened ribs. Contraction of internal muscles buckles the tymbals inwards thereby producing a click; on relaxation of the muscles, the tymbals return to their original position, producing another click. The male abdomen is largely hollow, and acts as a sound box. By rapidly vibrating these membranes, a cicada combines the clicks into apparently continuous notes, and enlarged chambers derived from the tracheae serve as resonance chambers with which it amplifies the sound. The cicada also modulates the song by positioning its abdomen toward or away from the substrate. Partly by the pattern in which it combines the clicks, each species produces its own distinctive mating songs and acoustic signals, ensuring that the song attracts only appropriate mates.