Species: P. Otilophus
Polypedates otilophus (also known as the file-eared tree frog, Borneo eared frog, or bony-headed flying frog) is a species of frog in the family Rhacophoridae. It is endemic to Borneo where it is widespread and found in Brunei, Indonesia, and Malaysia, typically in the lowlands but sometimes as high as 1,100 m above sea level. This species has prominent, sharp ridges behind the eye, above the ear, referred to in its names.
Males measure up to 80 mm and females up to 100 mm in snout-vent length. The body is robust and dorsal coloration varies from light brown or gray to yellowish brown or bright yellow. Ventral coloration is generally cream-colored or dirty white. Numerous thin black stripes run down the back from the head; the inguinal region has black lines and dots; and the thighs have 7-11 narrow black bars on the anterior and posterior faces.
The tympanum is conspicuous, with a serrated bony crest above it (the "ear"). Fingertips are expanded into large discs; those on the toes are smaller. The fingers have only rudimentary webbing whereas the toes are moderately webbed. The tadpoles are yellowish green above and white below, acquiring the stripes seen in adults well before metamorphosis. The largest tadpoles are 60 mm in total length.
Like other species of tree frog, their eggs are fertilized and develop in foam nests above suitable water bodies. The tadpoles will hatch and drop into the water below, or get washed down by heavy rain. Fully-grown tadpoles may reach 6 cm in length.
Larvae are yellowish green above and silvery white below; the dorsal fin may also have golden dots. Larvae acquire adult patterning on the body and hind limbs prior to eruption of fore limbs.
Polypedates otilophus typically occurs in secondary habitats, at the edges of primary forest, and also in villages.They are most easily spotted at suitable breeding ponds where adults perch on vegetation 1-4 m above the ground. It is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.